South Africa are still struggling to come to terms with the magnitude of the innings defeat in Port Elizabeth that handed England an unbeatable 2-1 lead in the series.
The Qatar Cricket Association hosted the event to give exposure and experience to the regional teams in a bid to raise their standard.
His first assignment will be to lead the team in a three-match series against World Cup champions England, starting in Cape Town on February 4.
With two days remaining, the visitors appear to hold the upper hand although the pitch looks likely to have the final say.
Wicketkeeper-batsman Sanju Samson will take Dhawan's place in the T20 team that is in New Zealand for the five matches starting January 24.
The 31-year-old seamer had earlier made a handy 44 not out batting at number eight as Zimbabwe advanced from their overnight 189 for two to 358 all out.
The partnership between Maharaj and Paterson was easily South Africa's best of the match and showed up an otherwise poor batting performance by the hosts.
India charged to a seven-wicket victory over Australia in Bangalore to clinch the three-match One-day International series 2-1.
The 22-year-old, playing in his fourth Test after being called up as cover for his sick Somerset team-mate Jack Leach, finished the day with five for 51.
Wicketkeeper-batsman Mushfiqur Rahim was left out after saying he would not go to Pakistan for security reasons.
India dominated Friday's second match and won by 36 runs, with opener Shikhar Dhawan hitting 96 and KL Rahul smashing 80 off 52 balls.
The series will now be decided in Bangalore on Sunday.
England declared on 499 for nine and South Africa were struggling on 60 for two when rain brought an early close to the day.
Shikhar Dhawan made 96, KL Rahul 80 and captain Virat Kohli 78 as the Indian batsmen dominated the Australian bowlers.
The 38-year-old was Thursday recalled to Pakistan's Twenty20 series against Bangladesh starting in Lahore from January 24.